Berlin wall, the concrete wall that separated from East Berlin West Berlin during the period 1961-89. The wall was a sharp guarded military blocking system which consisted of two walls partly of concrete and partly of the walls, and in its last year of concrete walls, with a no man’s land place shown with Spanish between riders, provided with barbed wire and mines.
The construction of the 45.1 km long wall along the border between østsektoren and the three west sectors commenced on 13.08.1961, when East German workers, guarded by soldiers sealed off the border with concrete blocks, hollow bricks of porous concrete, bricked houses and barbed wire.
The first barrier was in the following years was replaced by a concrete wall that was constantly being expanded. Then could only 7 of 81 border crossing points (including Checkpoint Charlie and Bahnhof Friederich Strasse) is used, and only with special permission. Also the border between the GDR and West Germany were closed.
The wall was built to stop the flight from the East – to West Berlin . Since the establishment of the GDR in 1949 was a large number of citizens fled the GDR; forward wall construction totaling 2.7 million. Only in July 1961 escaped more than 30,000.
The initiative to build the wall came from the East German leadership, and it was the later state and party leader Erich Honecker , who led the organizational something difficult work in secret to prepare for the construction. The “anti-fascist protective wall” that DDR described it, was complemented by a concrete wall of 112 km around the entire West Berlin.
First 07/19/1962 forbade GDR government with immediate effect all visits and stays along the 300 km long coastline on the Baltic Sea between the Federal Republic and Poland . Exceptions required then special permission. The measure was to prevent possible. Republic escape attempts.
The wall blocked GDR citizens from the outside world, and it came to be the foundation for the state’s existence and SED’s power. In early 1989 did Honecker told that the wall should exist as long as the reasons for its existence.
Berlin wall, however, was abruptly opened on 11.09.1989 in the evening as a result of pressure from the GDR population and citizens’ movement, and with the introduction of free exit option crumbled foundation of DDR’s existence.
It is estimated that the cost of construction of the wall corresponded to a year of housing production. It was closely watched by specially selected border soldiers, who in 1971 had orders to shoot to kill to stop the refugees.
Still tried many East Germans to get over the wall, including several border soldiers. Until the fall of the Wall, it was estimated that up to 100 people had been killed during escape attempts, but a later statement (1994) lists 244 deaths. The last killing took place in early 1989th.
In 1990, three border guards convicted of this murder, and in September 1993, three members of the GDR’s National Defense Council, which had issued shoot order, sentenced to prison by a federal German court.
In 2001, Gedenkstätte Berliner Mauer and Dokumentationszentrum Berliner Mauer inaugurated at Bernauer Strasse, which in 1961 was divided by the wall.