The word adaptation is originally Latin and simply means adjustment or the ability to adapt to other events . For example, physicians speak of adaptation when the pupil of the eye adapts to the respective light ratio.
In the literary field adaptation means the adaptation of a text to another literary or artistic form or to another means of communication.
Thus, when the novels Lola , Tintenherz or Witch Lilly are reworked into plays, radio plays or kinofilms are the adaptation of the original novels.
Often the literary works are adapted to a different medium or text form, because one is looking for good or already known narrative templates for films, plays or radio plays. Or you adapt a text, because you want to reach others or even more people with the same work. Sometimes old texts are translated into a different art genre to make them more up-to-date.
It is important that the adaptation is true to the original. The statement and mood, action , figures and images of the adaptation should therefore be very similar to the literary original.
If the author of the text has worked with the adaptation itself or at least agreed to the adaptation, That the reworking has taken place in the sense of the author and the salary of the work has remained fairly similar. This was the case , for example, with Joanne Rowling’s Harry Potter .
Michael Ende wanted to prevent the bad film adaptation of his book The Infinite History. He even complained against the producer, but did not get right in court. The film nevertheless came into the cinemas. In fact, he was not a particularly successful adaptation of Ende’s novel. However, the film worked well regardless of this and reached many viewers at the time.
Whether the listener, the viewer or the reader considers the adaptation to be successful depends, of course, on what ideas he has previously made from the original. In the adaptation of the romance drama Lord of the Rings by JRR Tolkien for the cinema, whose makers were proud to have implemented the work as faithfully as possible, there were nevertheless different opinions as to whether the adaptation was really successful. One found the text exactly translated into the Kinofilm, others found the weighting of each scene differently than in the book.
If the literary original is the way changed so much that a new, independent work arises from the fact we no longer speak of adaptation , but by the editingof a text. During processing , for example, the statement of the original can be twisted, important figures can be deleted or added, action strings and sense connections can be changed up to the unrecognizable nature of the original. Character series films such as The Bee Maja, Pippi Langstrumpf or Nils Holgerson are therefore not adaptations, but adaptations of the original, literary texts by Walter Bonsels, Astrid Lindgren and Selma Lagerlöf.