As Library (Greek biblos = book, counter = device) is called both a building are preserved in the books, as well as an organized collection of books, newspapers and magazines. Sometimes there is a room for storing and reading the books in a large apartment or school. This space is called library.
However, the term ” library” is also used for book series directed by a scientist, a writer or a publisher on a specific topic.
There are private libraries , which are usually only used by a family.
In addition, there are the so-called public libraries , Which are paid by a city or a state (in Germany also by a federal state) and are therefore open to all readers. In the public libraries you can find novels, poems, fairy tales, books, travel guides, magazines as well as CDs and games. The first public libraries should have already been laid by the Roman statesmen Caesar (100 – 44 BC) and Augustus (63 BC – 14 AD).
In addition, there are scientific libraries , in which only specialist books for individual sciences are collected. Travel guides, magazines as well as CDs and games. The first public libraries should have already been laid by the Roman statesmen Caesar (100 – 44 BC) and Augustus (63 BC – 14 AD). In addition, there are scientific libraries , in which only specialist books for individual sciences are collected. Travel guides, magazines as well as CDs and games. The first public libraries should have already been laid by the Roman statesmen Caesar (100 – 44 BC) and Augustus (63 BC – 14 AD). In addition, there are scientific libraries , in which only specialist books for individual sciences are collected.
In most libraries you can borrow books for a certain time and take them home for reading. They are lending libraries . Here you have to register as a reader or reader and then get a reading ID.
In other libraries, one can work with their holdings only in their rooms. The keyword for this variety library is called Presence Library . The word present comes from the Latin language and means as much as present, with it, present. The presence library has the advantage that the books that the library has are also available because they can not be lent out.
In the great libraries, the vast majority of the books in special storage areas, the magazines housed. They are only taken out to order. Rare and precious books may only be used in the reading room and with gloves. Because the slightest sweat of the fingers can damage the old paper.
In the children ‘s libraries, all books not lent out are freely accessible on the shelves. Libraries of this kind are also called free- hand bookshops .
The different library collections are organized by the librarians according to plan, arranged and supplemented with new publications. Because this is not so easy, library staff need special training.
In a library you can borrow books with a reading card and sometimes a loan. You can obtain the proof of identification from the librarians. He is usually free. However, you have to pay a dunning fee if you have overdue the loan period.
The librarians help readers find the right books.
You can also search for the right book by yourself in the catalogs.
There are four main types of catalogs:
- Alphabetical Catalog : Here are the authors sorted by AZ.
- Keyword list : Here, the books are listed according to their content according to alphabetically ordered material or proper names.
- Systematic catalog : Here the titles are sorted by subject area.
- Location : The books are listed in the same order as they are placed in the bookshelves. The location catalog is therefore a kind of shrunk shelf in the card box.
The last three figures are also recorded in the signature, the marking on the back of the books of a library. This signature must be indicated on the order or loan slip. This allows the books to be found more quickly and returned to their designated location after their return.
In many libraries there is also the microfiche catalog . Microfiche (French fiche , spoken fisch = map card) are films in postcard format. Up to 192 normal pages can be stored on a fiche with text and image. In order to be able to read this, however, you have to use a special device.
The microfiche reader brought a greater speed when finding and editing. Today, these processes are once again accelerated with computer technology.
Up to a few years ago, all the titles were written on small cards or pieces of paper and sorted into a so- called ” Zettelkatalog”. Today the books are mostly not found in the list, but by the search for the title, author or keyword in the computer. With all major libraries, it is now possible to view their collections free of charge in an electronic catalog and order books online. But by entering the title, author or keyword in the computer. With all major libraries, it is now possible to view their collections free of charge in an electronic catalog and order books online. But by entering the title, author or keyword in the computer. For all major libraries, it is now possible to view their collections free of charge in an electronic catalog and order books online.
History of the library
The library system has an ancient history. The first important library is the Assyrian king Assurbanipal (668-627 BC) in Nineveh. It was a palace library and was only available to the courtiers. In ancient Egypt, libraries are mostly found around temples.
The most important library of antiquity, Greek-Roman antiquity, was located in Alexandria, a town on the North African coast. It was said to contain 700,000 scrolls from all cultures known at that time. A fire destroyed them completely in 47 BC.
Following these roots, in collaboration with UNESCO, the International Organization for Education, Science and Culture of the United Nations, In October 2002 the Bibliotheca Alexandrina reopened.
Christianity as a so-called book religion brought forth important libraries. They were mostly part of monasteries such as Santiago de Campostella (Spain), Monte Cassino (Italy) and St. Gallen (Switzerland). They were, however, also settled on or in cathedrals, for example in Lyon (France) and Sienna (Italy), but also in Cologne or Mainz. Here the early German literature has been written down and preserved.
In the possession of the Carolingians, too, was the ruling family around Charles the Great (747-814), extensive and precious collections of books were found. But they had no fixed rulership, but moved from one royal fold to the other. Thus, in the long run, no proper court library could be established.
This and the fragmentation of Germany into many principalities and kingdoms into the 19th century as well as the division of the country after the Second World War are, among other things, the reasons why no unified German National Library developed in Germany in contrast to its most neighboring countries.
It was not until 29 June 2006 that the new Act on the German National Library came into force. The law raises the German Library in Leipzig, the German Library in Frankfurt am Main and the German Music Archive in Berlin to the German National Library . This comprises a total of 22 million media units at its three locations. In addition to printed texts, these include films, sheet music and sound recordings.