The name Albert Einstein is today inseparable from the theory of relativity that made him one of the leading scientists of the 20th century. His unmistakable charisma and his philosophical approaches made him a modern icon of the 20th century, which is also known to almost every human being outside of science. Which made him one of the leading scientists of the 20th century. His unmistakable charisma and his philosophical approaches made him a modern icon of the 20th century, which is also known to almost every human being outside of science. Which made him one of the leading scientists of the 20th century. His unmistakable charisma and his philosophical approaches made him a modern icon of the 20th century, which is also known to almost every human being outside of science.
Childhood and education :
Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879, as an elderly of two children of the strictly religious Jewish merchant Hermann Einstein and his wife Pauline in Ulm. Already in the year after his birth the family Einstein moved to Munich due to business interests of the father and uncle. There, Hermann Einstein, in cooperation with his brother, built an extremely successful family business, which in the following years was to supply numerous power plants in the Munich area with electrical appliances.
Albert Einstein first attended the Volksschule in Munich and later the Luitpold-Gymnasium, which has been called Albert-Einstein-Gymnasium since 1965. During this time, the boy showed good performance in science subjects but there were no signs of an extraordinary talent. The parents moved with their younger sister in 1894 to Milan. Albert Einstein initially stayed in Munich to finish his school education. However, as he was in conflict with the teachers and the strict educational system, he decided to leave early in his school education at the age of sixteen, and also to move to Italy to escape the military service in Germany. In the next few months he stayed in Lombardy and worked in his father’s company. This was the wish that Albert Einstein would study electrical engineering, To take over the family business one day. Albert Einstein applied against the will of the father at the ETH Zurich with the plan to study physics, but was rejected, because the school leaving certificate was missing. In the course of his studies, he showed excellent grades in the natural sciences, but he did not exist because of his poor knowledge of French. In Aarau, at the Kantonsschule, he took up the Swiss matriculation, which he passed in October 1896 with distinction. In the same semester, he began his studies at ETH Zurich, which he completed four years later as a graduate teacher in mathematics and physics.
Professional career and scientific achievements :
Immediately after his studies, he tried first in Schaffhausen and later in Winterthur as an auxiliary tutor, but he soon gave up this activity due to lack of interest. In 1902, he was employed as a technical examiner at the Swiss Federal Office of Intellectual Property, the patent office in Berne. A year earlier he had applied for and obtained Swiss citizenship after five years of statelessness.
Already during his work as a technical inspector at the Patent Office, Albert Einstein discussed scientific questions, which led to a first important publication in 1905, namely a contribution on the photoeffect. Einstein explained the photoemission by means of the effect of light or x-radiation on the surface of a body, during which particles of atomic compounds dissolve. In September of that same year, two further works appeared which already contained the basic principles of his theory of relativity as well as the famous formula E = mc². For a long time, Einstein had dealt with the laws of Isaac Newton and the observations of the physicist Albert Michelson, and found that the measured light velocity always remained constant, from which he concluded that time and space do not represent absolute dimensions as previously assumed. This led to the development of the formula which is now familiar to every physics student, With which he abolished the distinction between energy and matter. The formula states that the energy of a particle in the rest position is determined by its mass.
In 1905, Albert Einstein finally promoted to a doctorate and habilitated at the University of Bern three years later. This led him to abandon his work at the patent office and to strive for a scientific career. He spent the next years at the University of Zurich as an extraordinary professor of theoretical physics, later he went to Prague and finally to Berlin. He was first appointed a member of the Academy of Sciences, and in 1917 he was also appointed head of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute of Physics. During his time in Berlin, To deal with political questions about Judaism and gradually developed into a Zionist.
With the development of his general theory of relativity, he continued his work from 1905, in the course of which he had already ascertained that the same physical laws always apply in time and space. The theory of relativity states that the perception of the same physical processes is relative, that is to say can vary depending on the particular point of view. Einstein thus revolutionized modern physics and the universally valid world view of his time. Albert Einstein had been in conversation for many years as a potential Nobel laureate for the development of the theory of relativity, But the award was repeatedly prevented by a member of the committee for doubting his work. In 1922, Albert Einstein received the prestigious award for the year before, but not for his general theory of relativity, but for his work on light-electric effects by distraction in the gravitational field of the sun , which had made him world-famous in 1919.
Albert Einstein and his family left Germany as early as 1932 due to the political developments. The physicist never again entered the German soil. He settled down in Princeton, where he did research on the development of a field theory at the Institute for Advanced Studies. For fear of a nuclear rearmament of the Third Reich, he wrote to President Roosevelt in the first year of the war and pointed out to him the possibility of using atomic energy to produce an atomic bomb with great destructive power. In 1952, after Chaim Weizmann died, the presidency of Israel was proposed to him, which Albert Einstein, however, rejected. In Princeton, on April 18, 1955, he succumbed to internal bleeding caused by an aneurysm.
His first permanent position in Berne at the Patent Office was associated with a regular income which enabled him to marry his student colleague and life companion Mileva Maric in January 1903, although both families were strictly against marriage. With Mileva Maric, he had at this time already a one-year-old daughter named Lieserl, who however either died or was released for adoption. Two sons, Hans Albert and Eduard, who were born in 1904 and 1910, came out of marriage. In 1919 the divorce of Mileva Maric took place, and Albert Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal, his cousin, whom he had met in Berlin. Their death in 1936 led to a gradual isolation of the scientist.
Within a few years, the unknown teacher and examiner at the Patent Office advanced to a visionary physicist who had a lasting influence on modern natural sciences. When in 1905, thanks to him for the physics true “annus mirabilis” Presented his breakthroughing scientific achievements to the public, he changed a world picture that had been valid for two hundred years. Many scientists compare the effect of relativity theory on society and science today with that of the Copernican turn, which in the early sixteenth century also changed the universal world picture forever.
1879 : Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm.
1885 – 1888 : Visiting the Volksschule in Munich.
1888 – 1994 : Visit of the Luitpold-Gymnasium in Munich.
1894 : After an argument with the debtor, Einstein breaks the school education by himself.
1894 : move to Italy to his parents.
1895 : Einstein’s application at the ETH Zurich for physics is rejected.
1896 : Matura at the Kantonsschule Aarau.
1896 – 1900 : Studies of Mathematics and Physics at ETH Zurich.
1902 : work as a technical inspector for the Patent Office in Berne.
1903 : Marriage with Mileva Maric. Three children are born from this marriage.
1905 : Dissertation on the topic “A new determination of the molecular dimensions”.
1908 : Habilitation. Appointed Professor of theoretical physics at the University of Zurich.
1911 : Appointed Professor of theoretical physics at the University of Prague.
1913 : Member of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin.
1916 : Complete general relativity theory in Berlin.
1919 : Divorce from Mileva Maric.
1919 : Marriage with his cousin Elsa Löwenthal.
1921 : Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the law on photoelectric effect.
1933 : Einstein declares his resignation from the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences.
1933 : He is already in the USA at the time of the establishment of the National Socialists.
1936 : Elsa Einstein dies.
1939 : Signing of a letter to Roosevelt to advance the development of the atomic bomb.
1955 : Albert Einstein dies in Princeton (New Jersey) on April 18, 1955, at the age of 76.